First, the accused must commit an act which is deemed by society to be criminal, or actus reus . Second, the accused must have the requisite malicious intent to do a criminal act, or mens rea . However, for so called “strict liability” crimes, an actus reus is enough. Criminal systems of the civil law tradition distinguish between intention in the broad sense , and negligence. Negligence does not carry criminal responsibility unless a particular crime provides for its punishment.
- Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were highly sophisticated.
- However, in a presidential system, the government is usually formed by an executive and his or her appointed cabinet officials (e.g. the United States or Brazil).
- The law of the modern company began with the Joint Stock Companies Act 1856, passed in the United Kingdom, which provided investors with